North America

The United States of America has confidently come of age as one of the world's top wine-producing nations. Its reputation may be founded on the global fame of Napa and Sonoma in California, but North America is home to countless lesser-known wine regions producing world class wines (obvious examples include Oregon's Willamette Valley and the New York Finger Lakes). Wine has been made in North America for around 400 years, but it is only in the last 40 that American wine has really begun to earn respect on a global scale. America is now the world's fourth largest wine producing nation (behind France, Italy and Spain) and produces roughly 18.5 million hectolitres each year.

All 50 American states produce wine to some extent, although 95 percent of it comes from just four of them. California is by far the most prolific, producing five times more than the combined total of the next three: Washington, Oregon and New York. The 5 percent that comes from the other states, led by Texas and Virginia, is produced largely for local consumption rather than national or international markets. The topographical, geological and climatic diversity of the American continent has provided the states with all manner of vine growing conditions, from higher altitude, continental climes (e.g. Fair Play) to coastal, fog-laden areas (e.g. Edna Valley).

Wine has been produced in North America since the early 17th century, when European colonisation began in earnest. Repeated attempts were made by the early settlers, who brought with them the winemaking knowledge and practices of their European homelands. The various vine species native to North America (such as Vitis labrusca) were known to be both robust and high yielding, so very few vine plants accompanied these migrants on their voyage across the Atlantic. Unfortunately, these native vine species produced wines which matched neither the style nor the quality to which European settlers were accustomed.

European vinifera vines were not shipped to the Americas in any quantity until the mid-17th century. These invariably suffered at the hands of native pests (e.g. phylloxera) and fungal diseases. Over the next three centuries, it became clear that vine breeding and grafting were the keys to establishing a balance between manageable vines and palatable wines. Today, almost every wine-bearing vine in the U.S. is either a hybrid variety (e.g. Seyval Blanc) or a vinifera vine scion grafted onto the rootstock of a native (phylloxera resistant) variety.

North America's wine industry has had something of a rollercoaster ride ever since the Californian gold rush of the 1840s, which created massive demand for wine and led to widespread vineyard plantings all over the state. This knee-jerk reaction sparked a volatile cycle of surplus and deficit which lasted for several decades.

The first half of the 20th century brought Prohibition, economic depression and war, collectively suffocating the American wine industry. It wasn't until significant social, cultural and economic development set in after World War Two that things began to change. In the 1970s, the leading lights of the Californian wine industry brought about renewed winemaking interest across America, ultimately sparking the national wine renaissance. This period saw a proliferation of new, small scale wineries throughout the country and the upscaling of longer established operations and created significant momentum, which carried the industry well into the 21st century.

Regional identity is as important to wine in North America as it is in Europe. The concept is embodied by the country's 200 or so officially demarcated AVAs. Although these are similar to European-style appellations, there are crucial differences: where most European appellations directly govern geographical, viticultural and oenological factors, AVA titles are less restrictive, and indicate only the region of origin (i.e. where the grapes were grown). The AVAs, more than half of which are in California, vary in size from one quarter of a square mile to almost 30,000 square miles (77,700 square kilometres).
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